Mathematics (Foundation)

Foundation

# Types of Number

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Types of Number

Natural (Counting) Numbers

- Simply termed as the
**counting numbers**, these start from 1 and go up to infinity (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …). They exclude zero and negative numbers.

Whole Numbers

- This is a set that begins from 0, followed by all the positive integers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …). They are simply the
**natural numbers with the addition of zero**.

Integers

- These include all
**positive and negative whole numbers**, as well as zero (…, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …).

Rational Numbers

- These are any numbers that can be written as a
**fraction or ratio of two integers**. Remember, this includes whole numbers and fractions, as well as decimals that terminate or recur.

Irrational Numbers

- These are numbers that
**cannot be written as a fraction or ratio of two integers**. This includes decimals that never terminate or recur. Examples of these are √2 or π.

Real Numbers

- These are all the numbers on the
**number line including rational and irrational numbers**. They also include all the integers, fractions and decimal numbers, except for imaginary numbers.

Prime Numbers

- These are numbers that have only
**two distinct positive divisors**: 1 and the number itself. For example, the number 2 is the first prime number as it can only be divided evenly by 1 and 2.

Composite Numbers

- These are numbers that have
**more than two distinct positive divisors**. For example, the number 4 is a composite number because it can be divided evenly by 1, 2 and 4.

Even Numbers

- These are any integer divisible by 2. If the last digit ends with 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 it's an
**even number**.

Odd Numbers

- These are any integer not divisible by 2. If the last digit ends with 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, it's an
**odd number**.

Remember, understanding these types of numbers is the first step in getting to grips with the **fundamental concepts of mathematics**.